What is radar and how does it work?

I will try to explain the basic radar logic with a simple explanation. Pleasant reading.

Radar: The radar is formed by the first letters of the words “Radio Detection and Ranging”. Radio waves are used to determine the location, size and speed of objects.

Working Principle

The electromagnetic signal is transmitted and the energy of the radio waves returns to the object after it is reflected back from the object, which is called the echo to the reflected signals. For the radar, the direction of the intensity of the echo and the time of return are very important. In the direction of these parameters, the properties of the detected object are determined. It is also necessary that the reflected echo from the electromagnetic signal transmitted by the radar is above a certain level. This level is called the threshold value.


Areas Where Radars Are Used

Radars are used in civilian and military areas. In the areas of air traffic control and flight management in civil use, tactical management systems, navigation in the sea, navigation and weather radar and search and rescue, security, vehicle speed sensors.

They are used for military surveillance, observation, target classification and ballistic identification, early warning systems missile defense, air strike warning, guidance systems, positioning in operations, simulation and modeling tasks.


Basically, we can designate radar types as pulse radars and continuous wave radars. Impact radars are the most widely used type of radar, but they work according to the system principle that determines the target information using the basic principle we have compared above, that is, sending the radio waves and using the process with the reflection. They usually have a single antenna for sending and receiving. After sending the wave crashes, they wait for the target to be reflected and returned. Waves travel 300m in 1 microsecond. If the reflection of a tidal wave coming from the torpedo comes after 2 microseconds, we determine that the target is 300m away.

Continuous wave radars operate according to the principle of Doppler shift, using two different antennas as transmitters and receivers for sending and receiving. With this method, it can be difficult for a target to distinguish the range design and the two targets.


Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

The waves radiating from different and more than one point and reflected are the radar that is used to obtain the appearance of the scanned area by operating according to the physical structure of the world.

Radar Resolution

Resolution is a parameter that can distinguish two targets that are close to each other. There are two different resolutions. Azimuth and range resolution. Azimuth is the effect of perceiving these targets as a single target when the two targets are equidistant from each other and close to each other. When the two targets are at the same distance from the radar station, the radar perceives this as a single target when the waves of two targets reach one before the other.

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